The abstract is often required to be no more than a given maximum number of words, usually between and
You might think of this structure as following the shape of an hourglass. The research process usually starts with a broad area of interest, the initial problem that the researcher wishes to study. For instance, the researcher could be interested in how to use computers to improve the performance of students in mathematics.
But this initial interest is far too broad to study in any single research project it might not even be addressable in a lifetime of research. The researcher has to narrow the question down to one that can reasonably be studied in a research project.
This might involve formulating a hypothesis or a focus question. For instance, the researcher might hypothesize that a particular method of computer instruction in math will improve the ability of elementary school students in a specific district.
At the narrowest point of the research hourglass, the researcher is engaged in direct measurement or observation of the question of interest. Once the basic data is collected, the researcher begins to try to understand it, usually by analyzing it in a variety of ways.
Even for a single hypothesis there are a number of analyses a researcher might typically conduct. At this point, the researcher begins to formulate some initial conclusions about what happened as a result of the computerized math program.
Finally, the researcher often will attempt to address the original broad question of interest by generalizing from the results of this specific study to other related situations.
For instance, on the basis of strong results indicating that the math program had a positive effect on student performance, the researcher might conclude that other school districts similar to the one in the study might expect similar results.
Components of a Study What are the basic components or parts of a research study? Here, we'll describe the basic components involved in a causal study. Because causal studies presuppose descriptive and relational questions, many of the components of causal studies will also be found in those others.
Most social research originates from some general problem or question. You might, for instance, be interested in what programs enable the unemployed to get jobs.
Usually, the problem is broad enough that you could not hope to address it adequately in a single research study.
Consequently, we typically narrow the problem down to a more specific research question that we can hope to address. The research question is often stated in the context of some theory that has been advanced to address the problem. For instance, we might have the theory that ongoing support services are needed to assure that the newly employed remain employed.
The research question is the central issue being addressed in the study and is often phrased in the language of theory. For instance, a research question might be: Is a program of supported employment more effective than no program at all at keeping newly employed persons on the job?
The problem with such a question is that it is still too general to be studied directly. Consequently, in most research we develop an even more specific statement, called an hypothesis that describes in operational terms exactly what we think will happen in the study. For instance, the hypothesis for our employment study might be something like: The Metropolitan Supported Employment Program will significantly increase rates of employment after six months for persons who are newly employed after being out of work for at least one year compared with persons who receive no comparable program.
Notice that this hypothesis is specific enough that a reader can understand quite well what the study is trying to assess. In causal studies, we have at least two major variables of interest, the cause and the effect. Usually the cause is some type of event, program, or treatment.
We make a distinction between causes that the researcher can control such as a program versus causes that occur naturally or outside the researcher's influence such as a change in interest rates, or the occurrence of an earthquake.
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The effect is the outcome that you wish to study. For both the cause and effect we make a distinction between our idea of them the construct and how they are actually manifested in reality. For instance, when we think about what a program of support services for the newly employed might be, we are thinking of the "construct.Jan 29, · Students who participated in an intensive childhood education program from preschool to third grade were more likely to achieve an academic degree beyond high school, compared to a similar group that received other intervention services as children, with greater benefits for those whose mothers were high school dropouts.
Research has shown that marijuana’s negative effects on attention, memory, and learning can last for days or weeks after the acute effects of the drug wear off, depending on the person’s history with the drug.
53 Consequently, someone who smokes marijuana daily may be functioning at a reduced intellectual level most or all of the time.. Considerable evidence suggests that students who.
A STUDY OF ABSENTEEISM WITHIN COMPANY X, ITS CAUSES AND THE Management Responses to Absenteeism Page 22 Research Methodology Step One - Problem Definition Page 30 Step Two - Select Data Collection Method Page 31 How does the management of absenteeism within Company X relate to the best practice.
Most research projects share the same general structure. You might think of this structure as following the shape of an hourglass. The research process usually starts with a broad area of interest, the initial problem that the researcher wishes to study.
Research Methodology Into The Problem On Absenteeism. Print Reference this.
Disclaimer: certain strategies will tend to be associated with the use of certain research methods. The choice is influenced by the strategy, but at the same time it reflects preferences about the kind of data that the researcher wishes to obtain and practical.
collection methods. Ethical considerations were taken into account during the research hospitals. The structure of the research and the reference technique is explained in this chapter. The research on absenteeism in the Gauteng Department of Health is confined to The research on absenteeism in Gauteng Department of Health seeks to.