Evolution[ edit ] Frederick Jackson Turner, c. They adapted to the new physical, economic and political environment in certain ways—the cumulative effect of these adaptations was Americanization. Successive generations moved further inland, shifting the lines of settlement and wilderness, but preserving the essential tension between the two.
Frederick Jackson Turner "The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development. Turner was born in Portage, Wisconsin, in His father, a journalist by trade and local historian by avocation, piqued Turner's interest in history.
After his graduation from the University of Wisconsin inTurner decided to become a professional historian, and received his Ph. He served as a teacher and scholar at the University of Wisconsin from towhen he joined Harvard's faculty.
He retired in but continued his research until his death in Turner's contribution to American history was to argue that the frontier past best explained the distinctive history of the United States.
He most cogently articulated this idea in "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," which he first delivered to a gathering of historians in at Chicago, then the site of the World's Columbian Exposition, an enormous fair to mark the four-hundredth anniversary of Columbus' voyage.
Although almost totally ignored at the time, Turner's lecture eventually gained such wide distribution and influence that a contemporary scholar has called it "the single most influential piece of writing in the history of American history.
Census Bureau had announced the disappearance of a contiguous frontier line. Turner took this "closing of the frontier" as an opportunity to reflect upon the influence it had exercised.
He argued that the frontier had meant that every American generation returned "to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line. This development, in Turner's description of the frontier, "begins with the Indian and the hunter; it goes on with the disintegration of savagery by the entrance of the trader Turner's essay reached triumphalist heights in his belief that the promotion of individualistic democracy was the most important effect of the frontier.
Individuals, forced to rely on their own wits and strength, he believed, were simply too scornful of rank to be amenable to the exercise of centralized political power. Turner offered his frontier thesis as both an analysis of the past and a warning about the future.
If the frontier had been so essential to the development of American culture and democracy, then what would befall them as the frontier closed? It was on this forboding note that he closed his address: His critics have denied everything from his basic assumptions to the small details of his argument.
The mainstream of the profession has long since discarded Turner's assumption that the frontier is the key to American history as a whole; they point instead to the critical influence of such factors as slavery and the Civil War, immigration, and the development of industrial capitalism.
But even within Western and frontier history, a growing body of historians has contested Turner's approach. Some have long disputed the very idea of a frontier of "free land. The numerous Indian wars provoked by American expansion belie Turner's argument that the American "free land" frontier was a sharp contrast with European nations' borders with other states.
On a more analytic level, an increasing number of Western historians have found the very concept of a frontier dubious, because it applies to too many disparate places and times to be useful.
How much do Puritan New England and the California of the transcontinental railroad really have in common? Many such critics have sought to replace the idea of a moving frontier with the idea of the West as a distinctive region, much like the American South.
Where Turner told the triumphalist story of the frontier's promotion of a distinctly American democracy, many of his critics have argued that precisely the opposite was the case. Cooperation and communities of various sorts, not isolated individuals, made possible the absorption of the West into the United States.
Most migrant wagon trains, for example, were composed of extended kinship networks. Moreover, as the 19th century wore on, the role of the federal government and large corporations grew increasingly important.Frederick Jackson Turner ___Frederick Jackson Turner___ The Significance of the Frontier in American History [Footnote in Turner, Frontier, ] At the Atlantic frontier one can study the germs of processes repeated at each successive frontier.
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier was the key factor in the Frontier Thesis - Wikipedia The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in that American democracy was formed by the American frontier.
Frederick Jackson Turner, (born November 14, , Portage, Wisconsin, U.S.—died March 14, , San Marino, California), American historian best known for the “frontier thesis.” The single most influential interpretation of the American past, it proposed that the distinctiveness of the United.
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The Frontier Thesis of Frederick Jackson Turner Turner from PBS "The emergence of western history as an important field of scholarship can best be traced to the famous paper Frederick Jackson Turner delivered at a meeting of the American Historical Association in Frederick Jackson Turner Frontier Thesis Quizlet I should do my homework now scholarship essays for high school seniors essay on tree plantation in marathi essay on shortage of natural gas essays in anthropology variations on a theme.