Analytic pressure-volume diagrams are utilized to illustrate the effects of gasoline engine design on performance and combustion requirements. Topics discussed include design, construction, inspection techniques and servicing of the internal combustion engine and its components. Laboratory activities are performed to provide relevant hands-on experience to the students. Also engine aspiration, combustion using the principles of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics, volumetric efficiency and fuel metering systems will be discussed in this course.
Even in highly automated plants with their smaller number of workers, decrements in their health and well-being will sooner or later be reflected in impaired productivity or, sometimes, even in disasters.
Through governmental legislation and regulation, employers have been made responsible for maintaining the safety of the work environment and work practices, and for the treatment, rehabilitation and compensation of workers with occupational injuries and disease.
In recent decades, however, employers have begun to recognize that disabilities and absences are costly even when they originate outside the workplace. Consequently, they have begun to provide more and more comprehensive health promotion and protection programmes not only for employees but for their families as well.
The rationale for employer sponsorship of health promotion programmes includes preventing loss of worker productivity due to avoidable illnesses and disability and their associated absenteeism, improving employee well-being and morale, and controlling the costs of employer-paid health insurance by reducing the amount of health care services required.
Similar considerations have stimulated union interest in sponsoring programmes, particularly when their members are scattered among many organizations too small to mount effective programmes on their own. The workplace is uniquely advantageous as an arena for health protection and promotion.
It is the place where workers congregate and spend a major portion of their waking hours, a fact that makes it convenient to reach them.
In addition to this propinquity, their camaraderie and sharing of similar interests and concerns facilitate the development of peer pressures that can be a powerful motivator for participation and persistence in a health promotion activity.
The relative stability of the workforce-most workers remain in the same organization for long periods of time-makes for the continuing participation in healthful behaviours necessary to achieve their benefit.
The workplace affords unique opportunities to promote the improved health and well-being of the workers by: Does Health Promotion Work?
There is no doubt of the efficacy of immunizations in preventing infectious diseases or of the value of good occupational health and safety programmes in reducing the frequency and severity of work-related diseases and injuries.
There is general agreement that early detection and appropriate treatment of incipient diseases will reduce mortality and lower the frequency and extent of residual disability from many diseases.
There is growing evidence that elimination or control of risk factors will prevent or, at least, substantially delay the onset of life-threatening diseases such as stroke, coronary artery disease and cancer.
There is little doubt that maintaining a healthy lifestyle and coping successfully with psychosocial burdens will improve well-being and functional capacity so as to achieve the goal of wellness defined by the World Health Organization as a state beyond the mere absence of disease.
Yet some remain sceptical; even some physicians, at least to judge by their actions. There is perhaps a higher level of scepticism about the value of worksite health promotion programmes. In large part, this reflects the lack of adequately designed and controlled studies, the confounding effect of secular events such as the declining incidence of mortality from heart disease and stroke and, most important, the length of time required for most preventive measures to have their effect.
However, in the Health Project report, Freis et al.
In its initial review of over workplace programmes, the Health Project, a voluntary consortium of business leaders, health insurers, policy scholars and members of government agencies which advocate health promotion to reduce the demand and the need for health services, found eight with convincing documentation of savings in health care costs.
Pelletier assembled 24 studies of comprehensive worksite programmes published in peer-review journals between and Reports of single-focus programmes, such as those dealing with hypertension screening and smoking cessation, even though demonstrated to have been successful, were not included in this review.
He defined "comprehensive programs" as those which "provide an ongoing, integrated program of health promotion and disease prevention that knits the particular components smoking cessation, stress management, coronary risk reduction, etc. Factors common to the successful programmes, he noted, included specific programme goals and objectives, easy access to the programme and facilities, incentives for participation, respect and confidentiality, support of top management and a corporate culture that encourages health promotion efforts Pelletier While it is desirable to have evidence confirming the effectiveness and value of worksite health promotion programmes, the fact is that such proof has rarely been required for the decision to initiate a programme.
Most programmes have been based on the persuasive power of the conviction that prevention does work. In some instances, programmes have been stimulated by interest articulated by employees and, occasionally, by the unexpected death of a top executive or a key employee from cancer or heart disease and the fond hope that a preventive programme will keep "lightning from striking twice".
Structure of a Comprehensive Programme In many organizations, particularly smaller ones, the health promotion and disease prevention programme consists merely of one or more largely ad hoc activities that are informally related to each other, if at all, that have little or no continuity, and that often are triggered by a particular event and abandoned as it fades into memory.
A truly comprehensive programme should have a formal structure comprising a number of integrated elements, including the following: Programme Objectives and Ideology The basic objectives of the programme are to enhance and maintain the health and well-being of employees on all levels, to prevent disease and disability, and to ease the burden on individuals and the organization when disease and disability cannot be prevented.
The wellness programme recognizes that their health concerns cannot be confined within the boundaries of the plant or office, that problems arising in the workplace inevitably affect the health and well-being of workers and, by extension, also their families in the home and in the community and that, just as inevitably, problems arising outside of work affect attendance and work performance.
Accordingly, it is quite appropriate for the health promotion programme to address problems that some argue are not proper concerns for the organization.
The need to achieve wellness assumes greater urgency when it is recognized that workers with diminished capacities, however acquired, may be potentially hazardous to their co-workers and, in certain jobs, to the public as well.srmvision.com is the place to go to get the answers you need and to ask the questions you want.
Unweighted base = 1, Other matters that were investigated included the decision-making process, budgets, workforce consultation, awareness of information and advice, benefits of health promotion activity to employer and employee, difficulties in implementation, and perception of the importance of health promotion.
Of those American vessels near the Argonne when first contact was made with the enemy, only the Washington was sufficiently massive to go out in a blast of yonder size and shape. If that was the case Captain Martin Diaz of the United States Astromilitary Corps was a dead man. The other ships of the line were too distant, traveling on .
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