The writings of the late 17th-century empiricist John Locke on philosophy, government, and education were especially influential during the Enlightenment. It was to this already famous institution that Locke went inat age Although the school had been taken over by the new republican government, its headmaster, Richard Busby himself a distinguished scholarwas a royalist. In Januaryjust half a mile away from Westminster School, Charles was beheaded on the order of Cromwell.
Detail from a painting by Allan Ramsey, Introduction David Hume - was a Scottish philosopher, economist and historian of the Age of Enlightenment.
He was an important figure in the Scottish Enlightenment and, along with John Locke and Bishop George Berkeleyone of the three main figureheads of the influential British Empiricism movement.
He was a fierce opponent of the Rationalism of DescartesLeibniz and Spinozaas well as an atheist and a skeptic. In later life, however, he largely turned away from philosophy in favor of economics and his other great love, history, and it was only then that he achieved recognition in his own lifetime.
He changed his name to Hume in because the English had difficulty pronouncing "Home" in the Scottish manner. He was well read, even as a child, and Essay hume miracles a good grounding in Greek and Latin. He attended the University of Edinburgh at the unusually early age of twelve possibly as young as tenalthough he had little respect for the professors there and soon threw over a prospective career in law in favor of philosophy and general learning.
At the tender age of eighteen, he made a great "philosophical discovery" which remains somewhat unexplained and mysterious that led him to devote the next ten years of his life to a concentrated period of study, reading and writing, almost to the verge of a nervous breakdown.
It was there that he used up his savings to support himself while he wrote his masterwork, "A Treatise of Human Nature", which he completed in at only 26 years of age.
After the publication of his "Essays Moral and Political" inHume was refused a post at the University of Edinburgh after local ministers petitioned the town council not to appoint Hume due to his Atheism.
For about a year he tutored the unstable Marquise of Annandale and became involved with the Canongate Theatre in Edinburgh, where he associated with some of the Scottish Enlightenment luminaries of the time.
Clair, including as an aide-de-camp on diplomatic missions in Austria and Northern Italy, and even at one point as a staff officer on an ill-fated military expedition as part of the War of the Austrian Succession.
It was during this period that he wrote his "Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding", later published as "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding", which proved little more successful than the "Treatise".
Inthe Faculty of Advocates employed him as their librarian, for which he received little or no emolument, but which gave him access to a large library, and which enabled him to continue historical research for his "History of Great Britain".
This enormous work, begun in and not completed untilran to over a million words and traced events from the Saxon kingdoms to the Glorious Revolution. It was a best-seller in its day and became the standard work on English history for many years.
Thus, it was as a historian that Hume finally achieved literary fame. For a year fromhe held the appointment of Under Secretary of State for the Northern Department in London, before retiring back to Edinburgh in He died in Edinburgh on 25 Augustaged 65, probably as a result of a debilitating cancer he suffered from in his latter years, and was buried, as he requested, on Calton Hill, overlooking his home in the New Town of Edinburgh.
He remained to the end positive and humane, well-loved by all who knew him, and he retained great equanimity in the face of his suffering and death.
He spent most of the next ten years frantically trying to capture these thoughts on paper, resulting in "A Treatise of Human Nature" which he completed in at the age of just 26 and published two years later.
He refined the "Treatise" in the later "Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding" actually published as "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding" inalong with a companion volume "An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals"although these publications proved hardly more successful than the original "Treatise" on which they were based.
Hume was a thorough-going Empiricistthe last chronologically of the three great British Empiricists of the 18th Century along with John Locke and Bishop George Berkeleyand the most extreme.
He believed that, as he put it, "the science of man is the only solid foundation for the other sciences", that human experience is as close are we are ever going to get to the truth, and that experience and observation must be the foundations of any logical argument. He argued that all of human knowledge can be divided into two categories: In the face of this, he argued, in sharp contradistinction to the French Rationaliststhat even the most basic beliefs about the natural world, or even in the existence of the self, cannot be conclusively established by reason, but we accept them anyway because of their basis in instinct and custom, a hard-line Empiricist attitude verging on complete Skepticism.
Although he would almost certainly have believed that there was indeed an independently existing world of material objects, causally interacting with each other, which we perceive and represent to ourselves through our senses, his point was that none of this could be actually proved.
He freely admitted that we can form beliefs about that which extends beyond any possible experience through the operation of faculties such as custom and the imaginationbut he was entirely skeptical about any claims to knowledge on this basis.Having examined the epistemological basis for Hume's naturalism, we are ready to consider its application to human conduct.
In morality as in all else, Hume supposed, our beliefs and actions are the products of custom or habit. On Pentecost Sunday evening, , a young woman walked down the aisle of Wheaton Wesleyan Church in Wheaton, Illinois.
Church attendance wasn’t uncommon in that city, which housed the headquarters of many evangelical institutions, including Wheaton College. David Hume: Causation. David Hume () is one of the British Empiricists of the Early Modern period, along with John Locke and George srmvision.comgh the three advocate similar empirical standards for knowledge, that is, that there are no innate ideas and that all knowledge comes from experience, Hume is known for applying this standard rigorously to causation and necessity.
STUDY GUIDE to Miracles By C.S. Lewis Introduction Lewis’ lucid, generous minded and comprehensive apologetic for miracles is, in its own way, no less compelling than Mere Christianity in the case it makes for the overall rationality of the Christian faith.
The miracles of Jesus are the supernatural deeds attributed to Jesus in Christian and Islamic texts. The majority are faith healing, exorcisms, resurrection of the dead, control over nature and forgiveness of sins.. In the Synoptic Gospels (Mark, Matthew, and Luke), Jesus refuses to give a miraculous sign to prove his authority.
In the Gospel of John, Jesus is said to have performed seven. This is the first new scholarly edition this century of one of the greatest works in the history of philosophy, David Hume's Enquiry concerning Human srmvision.com is the third volume of the Clarendon Hume Edition, which will be the definitive edition for the foreseeable future.