In agriculture with heavy cash investments for modern inputs e.
Footnotes Introduction "The total amount of suffering per year in the natural world is beyond all decent contemplation. During the minute it takes me to compose this sentence, thousands of animals are being eaten alive; others are running for their lives, whimpering with fear; others are being slowly devoured from within by rasping parasites; thousands of all kinds are dying of starvation, thirst and disease.
Disease, starvation, predation, ostracism, and sexual frustration are endemic in so-called healthy ecosystems. The great taboo in the animal rights movement is that most suffering is due to natural causes. It lies behind the bad science in nature-documentary voiceovers: No one, either religious or irreligious, believes that the hurtful agencies of nature, considered as a whole, promote good purposes, in any other way than by inciting human rational creatures to rise up and struggle against them.
Rarely discussed is the topic of animal suffering in the wild, even in the academic literature, though there have been notable exceptions. Intense suffering is a regular feature of life in the wild that demands, perhaps not quick-fix intervention, but at least long-term research into the welfare of wild animals and technologies that might one day allow humans to improve it.
I conclude by encouraging animal advocates to focus their efforts to promote concern about wild-animal suffering among other activists, academics, and others who would be sympathetic -- both to encourage research on the issue and to ensure that our descendants use their advanced technologies in ways that alleviate wild-animal suffering rather than inadvertently multiply it.
Numbers of Wild Animals The scale of animal suffering at human hands is vast, and animal advocates are right to be appalled by its magnitude. However, the numbers of animals that live in the wild are staggeringly larger.
And while "Nature, red in tooth and claw" is widely known as a platitude, its visceral meaning can often be overlooked.
Below I review some details of wild-animal suffering, perhaps in a manner similar to the way in which animal advocates decry acts of cruelty by humans. Predation When people imagine suffering in nature, perhaps the first image that comes to mind is that of a lioness hunting her prey.
Christopher McGowan, for instance, vividly describes the death of a zebra: The lioness sinks her scimitar talons into the zebra's rump.
They rip through the tough hide and anchor deep into the muscle. The startled animal lets out a loud bellow as its body hits the ground. An instant later the lioness releases her claws from its buttocks and sinks her teeth into the zebra's throat, choking off the sound of terror.
Her canine teeth are long and sharp, but an animal as large as a zebra has a massive neck, with a thick layer of muscle beneath the skin, so although the teeth puncture the hide they are too short to reach any major blood vessels.
She must therefore kill the zebra by asphyxiation, clamping her powerful jaws around its trachea windpipecutting off the air to its lungs. It is a slow death.
If this had been a small animal, say a Thomson's gazelle Gazella thomsoni the size of a large dog, she would have bitten it through the nape of the neck; her canine teeth would then have probably crushed the vertebrae or the base of the skull, causing instant death.
As it is, the zebra's death throes will last five or six minutes.A Report on an Ecosystem Essay Sample. Introduction. Ecology is the study of the abundance of life, and the interaction between organisms (biotic features), and their abiotic environment.
The Southeast Asian Universities Agroecosystem network (SUAN) has used five system properties to assess agroecosystem performance: productivity, stability, sustainability, equitability and autonomy. Published: Mon, 5 Dec The introduction of harmful waste materials, other forms of contamination which are a hazard to the life sustaining atmosphere of the planet earth is commonly known as pollution.
A land ethic is a philosophy or theoretical framework about how, ethically, humans should regard the land. The term was coined by Aldo Leopold (–) in his A Sand County Almanac (), a classic text of the environmental movement.
There he argues that there is a critical need for a "new ethic," an "ethic dealing with human's relation to land and to the animals and plants which grow. I have a love/hate relationship with calculus: it demonstrates the beauty of math and the agony of math education.
Calculus relates topics in an elegant, brain-bending manner. The New Methodology. In the past few years there's been a blossoming of a new style of software methodology - referred to as agile methods. Alternatively characterized as an antidote to bureaucracy or a license to hack they've stirred up interest all over the software landscape.