Mother Marianna de Jesus de Torres. And its partisans were so well represented within the Church at the time of Pope St. Pius X, especially in the faculties of theology and the seminaries, that he dedicated his pontificate to eradicating this influence and protecting the Church against it.
This and a similar crisis in France were settled by a compromise. Election by the cathedral chapter was to be free; lay investiture was waived, but homage before the bestowal of the fief was allowed. Meanwhile Paschal, at odds with the German king Henry V, who was demanding imperial coronation, suddenly offered to renounce all church property held by the king if lay investiture were also abandoned.
Henry accepted, but the bishops refused the terms; thereupon the King seized the Pope who, under duress, allowed lay investiture.
By this time, however, a large majority of the bishops were Gregorians, and the Pope was persuaded to retract.
According to this agreement free election by ecclesiastics was to be followed by investiture without staff and ring and homage to the king. This ended the strife of 50 years, in which pamphleteers on both sides had revived every kind of claim to supremacy and God-given authority.
Nominally a compromise, the concordat was in effect a victory for the monarch, for he could usually control the election. Nevertheless, the war of ideologies had exposed the weakness of the emperor who in the last resort had to admit the spiritual authority of the pope, and the struggle left intact the claim of the church to moderate the whole of society.
The Crusades The authority of the papacy and the relative decline of the empire also became clear in the unforeseen emergence of the Crusades as a major preoccupation of Europe.
Although this appeal may have been the decisive motive for the Crusade, there were obvious advantages in diverting the Normans of Sicily and other turbulent warriors from Europe to wage a sacred war elsewhere.
Even though the capture of Jerusalem and the establishment of a Latin kingdom in Palestine were balanced by disasters and quarrels, the papacy had gained greatly in prestige. Though Germany as a whole had remained aloof, a pope had for the first time stood out as the leader of a European endeavor.
But they were part of the religious background for two centuries and added greatly to the anxieties, both spiritual and financial, of the papacy.
The church of the late Middle Ages The Proto-Renaissance The 12th century, or, more correctly, the centuryhas been called the first Renaissance. A more accurate title would be the adolescence of Europein which higher education, techniques of thought and speech, and a fresh attack upon the old problems of philosophy and theology appeared for the first time in postclassical Europe.
All these activities were carried out by clerics and controlled by churchmen. The focus of educational activity was the cathedral school, and the new agent of instruction was the semiprofessional, unattached teacher, such as the French philosopher-theologians Berengarius, Roscelin, and Abelard, though monks such as Lanfranc, Anselm of Canterbury, and Hugh and Richard of the Monastery of St.
Victor, Paris, still had a share. Philosophy was revived through the development of logic and dialectic, which were applied to doctrines of the faith, either as formal exercises, Augustinian speculation, or critical reformulation.
From onward theology, in the modern sense of the word first used by Abelardemerged. The teachings of Scripture and of the early Church Fathers on the various doctrines were consolidated and organized in works called Sentences.
The first handbook of theology was composed by Abelard. Finally, Peter Lombard bishop c. His classic manual may be said, in modern terms, to have created the syllabus of theological study for the age that followed. Together with the expansion of logic--brought about by the arrival through Muslim sources of what was called the new logic of Aristotle--and the emergence of the university, the Sentences ended the era of literary, humanistic, and monastic culture and opened that of the formal, impersonal, Scholastic age.
Reformed monasticism The most distinctive feature of the centuryaccording to some scholars, was the appearance and diffusion of reformed monasticism. Benedict, with emphasis on simplicity, poverty, and manual work. The addition of lay brothers tapped a large reservoir in an age of economic and demographic expansion and the organization of the order--with annual visitations and a general chapter--ensured good discipline and enabled the order to accommodate itself to the strain of a vast family of houses scattered throughout the Latin Church.This webpage is for Dr.
Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
Women in War and Business! In 15th Century England, Women hit a high point that they won't see again for another years. As it is often the case, women began to take over the roles of the men following the Black Plague and the subsequent plagues and illnesses that lasted into the beginning of the 15th century.
Over forty CWR editors and contributors share their favorite reads from the last year. Clovis I: Clovis I, king of the Franks and ruler of much of Gaul from to , a key period during the transformation of the Roman Empire into Europe.
His dynasty, the Merovingians, survived more than years, until the rise of the Carolingians in the 8th century. While he was not the first Frankish. Scold your wife sharply, bully and terrify her is a quotation from a fifteenth century Catholic Church publication called Rules of Marriage, a document which does not just condone wife battering but actually recommends it as a meritorious action that will bring spiritual benefit to both hu.
Sep 12, · Marriage among women 15 to 44 years old (the reproductive years) peaked in England and Wales in at %; by only % of women of reproductive age were married. I wish to take us back in time to London, England to ; the latter part of the 15th Century.